Talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga ma le faʻaleleiga i (post) feteʻenaʻi sosaiete

"… Malamalamaaga o talaʻaga e taua tele i le sosaiete agavaʻa e faitau ma le faigata taimi ua tuanaʻi mo le manuia o se sili atu lumanaʻi lumanaʻi."

(Faʻalauiloa mai: I talaatu o le le gaioi. Me 19, 2020)

ala i le: Jamie Wise

O talafaʻasolopito o loʻo matou aʻoaʻoina e i ai ni mea taua e faʻataua ai le vaʻaia o feteʻenaʻiga i le taimi nei. E pei ona faʻaiʻu mai e Cole (2007, 123), "… o malamalamaaga i talaʻaga e taua tele i le agavaʻa a le sosaiete e faʻafetaui lelei taimi ua tuanaʻi ona o se lumanaʻi talafeagai." Lenei tusitusiga iloiloina le matafaioi o talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga i le fausiaina o tuʻufaʻatasia o manatuaga ma vavalalata faʻatasi i totonu o (post) feteʻenaʻiga mataupu. Talafaʻasolopito aʻoaʻoga fesoʻotaʻi ma le filemu aʻoaʻoga (vaʻai Brahm 2006) e ala i le taulaʻi atu i faʻafefea tala e uiga i taimi ua tuanaʻi o taua ma fausiaina i (post) feteʻenaʻiga nofoaga faʻaleaʻoaʻoga. Faʻasino i "(post) feteʻenaʻiga pei o lea iloa e tusa lava pe a maeʻa maliega filemu ua sainia pe faʻamutaina sauaga, o feteʻenaʻiga e masani ona tumau i taimi o mafaufauga ma faʻailoga o vaega i na sosaiete. Talafaʻasolopito aʻoaʻoga mafai ona fesoasoani i le faʻaleleiga e ala i le fesoasoani e faʻailoa le faigata upu moni e uiga i taimi ua tuanaʻi, ae faʻapea foi ma toe fuataʻiga vavaega manatu ma manatu e uiga i avanoa mo le galulue faʻatasi ma muamua fili i le lumanaʻi. O nei vaʻavaʻaiga i tua ma lumanaʻi faʻatulagaina maua uma avanoa ma papupuni mo le aʻoaʻoina o talaʻaga i (post) feteʻenaʻiga nofoaga.

I mea o loʻo sosoʻo mai, o se aotelega o manatu tetele o manatu e manaʻomia e malamalama ai i le aʻafiaga o aʻoaʻoga o talaʻaga i le toe faʻaleleia ua maua mai-e aofia ai ma le fesoʻotaʻiga faʻafesoʻotaʻi, talitonuga faʻaagafesoʻotaʻi, ma mafaufauga manatua. Le isi, o lenei tusitusiga iloiloina auala aoga i le faʻaaogaina o aʻoaʻoga o talafaʻasolopito e faʻafesoʻotaʻi ai vaevaega vaega e tusa ai ma aʻoaʻoga, soʻotaga tusi aʻoga, ma le aʻoaʻoina o faʻafinauga faʻamatalaga i le va o ma-ma totonu vasega aʻoaʻoga. I totonu o nei vaega, o faʻamaoniga taua mai se vaega le maeʻaeʻa o (post) feteʻenaʻiga mataupu i le lalolagi atoa o loʻo aofia ai e aoteleina le setete o le poto e uiga i le aʻafiaga o nei auala ma faʻailoa totoe tapulaʻa ma va. I le iuga, o lenei tala faʻaiʻu faʻaiʻuina ma fautuaga taua mo le au fai tulafono, tagata atamamai, ma faiaʻoga na aoina mai lenei tusitusiga pe faʻafefea ona tuʻufaʻatasia aʻoaʻoga o talafaʻasolopito i taumafaiga faʻalelei.

Vaaiga Tutupu

Faʻafesoʻotaʻi le faʻafitauli

Tasi fuafuʻa o suʻesuʻega suʻesuʻeina le fesoʻotaʻiga i le va o aʻoaʻoga ma le toe faʻalelei i (post) feteʻenaʻiga mataupu faʻamamafaina le aumaia o sui o feteʻenaʻi vaega e fesoʻotaʻi ma le tasi i le isi i avanoa aʻoaʻoga mo le faʻamoemoe o aʻoaʻoga ma ma mai le tasi i le isi. O suʻesuʻega i lenei eria e tele lava ina maua mai i le Allport's (1954) “fesoʻotaʻiga faʻafesoʻotaʻiga,” o loʻo faʻailoa mai ai o soʻotaga vavalalata e faʻaalia e le tutusa, leai ni tauvaga, ma le ono aʻoaʻoina e uiga i le “isi” e mafai ona taʻitaʻia ai i le faʻaleleia o soʻotaga vavalalata (pei ona taʻua i le Schulz 2008, 34). O lenei manatu e faʻapea o feteʻenaʻiga e faʻavae i luga o manatu le lelei o le "isi" e tumau ona o le vavaeʻese o vaega mai le isi. O le lautele lautele-mafaufau tusitusiga i luga o faʻatasi fesoʻotaʻiga maua molimau folafolaina e mafai ona faʻaititia le faʻaituʻau, popole, ma le faʻailoga tagata ao faʻalauteleina le agaga malamalama i le va o kulupu, fautuaina lona taua o se mea faigaluega i le filemu aʻoga (tagai Mania et al. 2010).

E ui o le tele o isi faʻataʻitaʻiga e faʻatatau i talanoaga e pei o talanoaga ma poloketi soʻosoʻo e ono faʻamoemoeina foi i le vafealoaloaʻi o a latou talitonuga faʻavae, Schulz (2008, 35-36) o loʻo taʻua e faapea, o avanoa aʻoaʻoga e mafai lava ona fausia ai se “malae faʻaagafesoʻotaʻi” e mafai ai e pati ona auai. fefinauaʻiga le faʻamalosi ma faʻamalosia le faʻalelei. O nei feiloaʻiga o loʻo faʻataʻatitia faʻaputuina le tuʻufaʻatasia o tamaiti aʻoga mai itu eseese o le feteʻenaʻiga, pe ala mai i aʻoga tuʻufaʻatasi, polokalame aʻoaʻoga, poʻo asiasiga i le 'upega tafaʻilagi. E finau e faapea-a tuu i ai le faafaigofieina ma aiaiga-o ia feiloaʻiga e mafai ona maua ai ni fetuunaiga laʻititi, e masani lava (e ui e le o taimi uma) e ala i le aʻoaʻoina e uiga i isi tala ma manatu o talaʻaga.

Teori Faʻalauiloa Lautele

Tele sikola sikola foi faʻataʻitaʻi le fesili o le faʻaleleiga e ala i aʻoaʻoga o talaaga mai le Social Identity Theory vaaiga, lea o loʻo taofi ai le faʻailoaina e oe lava ma se vaega faʻapitoa e faʻatupuina ai lagona lelei o le ingroup faʻatasi ai ma le le lelei o le stereotyping o soʻo se vaega (vaʻai se toe iloiloga o nei tusitusiga i Korostelina 2013 ). Mo nisi mea i luga ole fetaulaʻiga o aʻoga, faʻailoga, ma feteʻenaʻiga, vaʻai Bellino and Williams (2017). E ui o lenei manatu faʻavae e sosolo tele ma le fesoʻotaʻiga faʻafesoʻotaʻi i lona faʻamamafaina i vavalalata aulotu, e maua ai se sili atu faʻavaʻa mo le malamalama pe faʻafefea uiga e uiga i le tasi ingroup faʻailoga — pei ona faʻamatalaina i se vaega e se tasi talaʻaga talaʻaga - a le faʻaopopoina pe toʻesea mai le faʻaleleia.

Ae maise lava, Korostelina (2013, 41-43) saunia se faʻataʻitaʻiga o le faʻavaeina faʻavaeina i talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga, faʻamatalaina pe faʻapefea ona aʻoaʻoina e uiga i taimi ua tuanaʻi mafai ona saofaga i feteʻenaʻiga amioga poʻo se isi mea i se "aganuʻu o le filemu." Korostelina (2013) finau o talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga mafai faʻamalosia ingroup identities, ma a o nei e fesoʻotaʻi i aitia o le atunuʻu faʻavae i luga o le faʻapalepale ma fefaʻasoaaʻi tagata, latou mafai ona fesoasoani i le faʻalelei. Talafaʻasolopito aʻoaʻoga mafai foi ona siamupini eseesega ma le tutusa o vaega uma i totonu o se sosaiete, fausiaina lelei va fealofani. I le iuga, talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga mafai ona faʻaaogaina e demystify o iai nei malosiaga fausiaina ma a latou faʻamaoniga, lea e masani ona tuʻuina i manatuaina o faʻafefe faʻamataʻu i le va o kulupu. E pei ona tusia e Korostelina (2012, 195) i se isi mea: "O aʻoaʻoga o talafaʻasolopito e mafai ona faʻatonutonuina ai faʻalavelave faʻatasi ma fesoasoani ai i le toe faʻaleleia e ala i le atinaʻeina o se tuʻufaʻatasia o tuʻufaʻatasia, faʻafaigofieina o le vafealoaʻi, ma le atinaʻeina o se faʻamalosia amioga tatau." E pei o lea, talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga saofaga i uma retrospective ma prospective faʻalelei, fesoʻotaʻiga le lua e ala i iloiloga o le vafealoaloai faʻailoga vaega.

Suesuega i le mafaufau

Talu ai nei lava, sa faia ai e le au atamamai ni taumafaiga e faʻafesoʻotaʻi le eseesega i le va o galuega i talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga ma manatuaga i (post) feteʻenaʻiga nofoaga. Paulson ma paʻaga (2020) finau o aʻoaʻoga tatau ona avea o se nofoaga o manatua mo le aʻoaʻoina o "faigata talaʻaga." Ae maise lava, latou finau o le talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga e sili atu nai lo na o se taʻavale mo le faʻasalalauina o le atunuʻu poʻo le setete-faʻatagaina tala i totonu o lalo-lalo taumafaiga e faʻatulagaina tuʻufaʻatasia manatua. Nai lo lena, ua finau o aʻoga saunia avanoa mo tauvaga ma le fausiaina o manatuaina e ala i fegalegaleaiga i le va o tamaiti aʻoga ma faiaoga, oe mafai "saili e faʻagaeʻetia aʻoaʻoga faʻasolopito mo le toe faʻaleleia ma le fausiaina o le filemu" (Paulson et al. 2020, 442). O lenei manatuaina fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻi ma lautele lautele fefaʻatauaiga faiga i (post) feteʻenaʻi sosaiete e ala i le tuʻufaʻatasia o sailiiliga o le moni komisi ma aia tatau a tagata i totonu o polokalame aʻoaʻoga e tumau umi ina ua maeʻa le mandate o na auala na mutaʻu (Cole 2007, 121). E le gata i lea, aʻoaʻoga o talafaʻasolopito e mafai ona fesoasoani i le fesuiaiga o le faʻamasinoga i le faʻailoaina o le taimi ua tuanaʻi e faasaga i tagata afaina, aʻoaʻoina faiga faʻatemokalasi, ma faʻalauiloaina le faʻalelei (Cole 2007, 123).

Aoga Faʻatino

Pedagogy i Talafaʻasolopito Aʻoaʻoina

E tele vaaiga faʻaleaʻoaʻoga i le aʻoaʻoina o talaʻaga finau (vaʻai Elmersjö, Clark, and Vinterek 2017). Paulson ma paʻaga (2020) mafaufau ia Seixas '(2004) auala aʻoaʻoga i talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga, o loʻo faʻamatalaina ii mo faʻasino. Muamua, o le "manatua faʻatasi" o loʻo faʻamamafaina mai ai se tala faʻasolopito se tasi, e masani ona faʻatupuina e atugaluga faʻalelotu ma faʻapolokiki (Paulson et al. 2020, 440). Lona lua, o le "postmodern" auala e aumaia mai le tele o vaaiga e tuʻuina ai tamaiti aʻoga ma tala eseese e iloiloina faitio, e pei o na tuʻufaʻatasia i soʻotaga talaʻaga tusi (Paulson et al. 2020, 440). Lona tolu, o le "amio pulea" auala faʻamoemoe e tuʻuina atu i tamaiti aʻoga ma le malamalamaaga o punavai ma metotia faʻavaeina le fausiaina o tala faʻasolopito, ina ia latou malamalama ai pe faʻafefea ona maua le uiga mai mea ua tuanaʻi (Paulson et al. 2020, 440-441). O le toe iloiloga o tusitusiga a Paulson (2015) na suʻesuʻe ai aʻoaʻoga o talaʻaga i le sefulutasi o atunuʻu na aʻafia i feteʻenaʻiga, ma maua ai o faiaʻoga e masani ona faia se "manatua faʻatasi" i le aʻoaʻoga na faʻalauteleina ai tu ma aga a le atunuʻu. Ae ui i lea, Paulson ma paʻaga (2020, 441) mulimuli ane finau o lumanaʻi suʻesuʻega tatau ona taulaʻi atu i le faʻafefea ona fausiaina mataupu faʻasolosolo, faʻapea foi ma le auala e aʻoaʻoina ai tamaiti aʻoga ma tamaiti aʻoga i le potuaʻoga o mea e manatua.

Faʻailoa mai mataupu suʻesuʻe o aʻoaʻoga o talafaʻasolopito i le tele o (post) feteʻenaʻi atunuʻu, Korostelina (2016) maitauina o le eseʻesega i le va o "taua" ma "faitio" talaʻaga tumau pea o se faʻafitauli mo le faʻaleleia o sosaiete. Ae maise lava, o talafaʻasolopito o talaʻaga e faʻaaogaina e (post) feteʻenaʻiga tulafono e faʻasalalau talafatu tala faʻasolopito e faʻatumauina ai lo latou puleaina e ala i auala e pei o le faʻamamaluina o le ingroup ma suia suiga i le outgroup (Korostelina 2016, 291). Peitaʻi, o le faʻaulufaleina o talaʻaga faigata e mafai ona faʻafaigataina ai ni faʻamatalaga iloga e ala i le tuʻufaʻatasia o faʻamatalaga e tele i taimi ua tuanaʻi ma fetauiga ma mafuaʻaga o vevesi (Korostelina 2016, 293-294). O ia talafaʻasolopito talaʻi e mafai ona fesoasoani i le faʻaleleia, talu ai "o feteʻenaʻiga i le va o vafealoai ua leva ona manatu e le mafai ona suia, e mafai ona toe faʻamatalaina; e mafai ona suia feteʻenaʻiga i se felagolagomaʻi talafeagai ”(Korostelina 2016, 294).

Talafaʻasolopito aʻoaʻoga i fevaevaeaʻiga i sosaiete e tatau ona mafai ai e tamaiti aʻoga ona punouai i faʻagaioiga o le malamalama mauaina faʻatotonugalaia i le faitio fesili.

O isi foi na finau e faapea o le aʻoaʻoina o talafaʻasolopito i totonu o fevaevaeai aai e tatau ona mafai ai e tamaiti aʻoga ona punouai i gaioiga o le mauaina o le malamalama e faʻatotonugalemuina i le ogaoga o fesili. Faʻapitoa lava, McCully (2010, 216) finau mai o aʻoaʻoga o talafaʻasolopito e fesoasoani i le faatupuina o le filemu pe a: 1) faʻaauupegaina tamaiti aʻoga ma le faitio mafaufau tomai; 2) faʻaogaina punaoa e maua ai mo multiperspectivity; 3) faʻalauteleina le malamalama ma agaalofa malamalama i le "isi"; ma le 4) totoʻa faʻatemokalasi tulaga taualoa e ala i le tatala, auai i finauga. Peitaʻi, o lapataʻiga a McCully (2010, 214) e tatau ona amanaʻia e faiaʻoga pe faʻafefea ona fesoʻotaʻi aʻoaʻoga o talafaʻasolopito ma faʻailoga faʻaupufai i sosaiete finau. Ae maise lava, e tatau ona amanaʻia e-faʻalagolago i le talaaga ma le faʻapalepale maaleale o aʻoaʻoga-faiaoga ono manaʻomia le sauniuni e auai i le "ono lamatiaina-faia" ina ia tulituliloaina fesuiaiga lautele ala i talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga (McCully 2010, 215) . I totonu o le Iunaite Setete, o se taumafaiga talu ai nei Aʻoaʻoga mo Amerika Temokalasi (EAD) faʻamalosia foi faitio fesili o se pedagogical mataupu faʻavae mo fesoʻotaʻi Amerika aʻoaʻoga ma civics aʻoaʻoga. Na taʻua e le EAD e faapea: tomai e finau ai luʻitau tatou te feagai ai i le taimi nei ma le lumanaʻi "(EAD 2021, 12). E ui lava e le o faʻamalamalamaina manino lana galuega o se faʻalelei, ae ua faʻailoa mai foi e le EAD le taua o le tauivi ma talaʻaga taua e fausia ai se lumanaʻi faʻa-temokalasi i totonu o se sosaiete faʻapitoa.

I a latou aotelega o auala faʻaaʻoaʻoga, Skårås (2019, 520) faʻaopoopoina "aloese" i se faʻaopopoga i le "tala e tasi" ma le "multiperspectivity" auala i talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga. Ua matauina e Skårås (2019, 522) o le alo ese mai le ono avea ma filifiliga e fiafia iai i mea o loʻo tutupu pea i le maualuga o le le saogalemu; Tusitusiga e uiga i le aʻoaʻoga o aʻoaʻoga i Sudan i Saute, na taʻua e Skårås, "O le potuaʻoga tele aganuu ua avea ma se taufaamatau saogalemu aua e leai se tasi na te mautinoa mautinoa po o ai e aufaatasi ma ia i se taua faalemalo e auai tamaiti aʻoga ma faiaoga pe a maeʻa itula aʻoga." O le mea lea, o talafaʻasolopito talaʻi e mafai ona suia e tala toʻatasi pe a tumau feteʻenaʻiga, le le mafai ona faʻatauaina mafuaʻaga o le vevesi pe faʻalauteleina le tumau gaioiga (Skårås 2019, 531-532). E faʻapena foi, Korostelina (2016, 302-304) maitau pe faʻapefea ona faʻalauteleina e nisi sosaiete "talaʻaga filifilia" e le aofia ai faʻamatalaga e uiga i sauaga ua tuanaʻi e aloese ai mai le toe faʻatupuina o ni manatu le lelei i le va o vaega, e foliga mai e maua ai le filemu; ae ui i lea, o na faʻamatalaga faigata ma le le moni, e faʻatamaia ai le toe faʻalelei. Pingel (2008) faʻafofogaina pe faʻafefea ona faʻamalosia le aloese mai le pito i luga-lalo, pe a (post) feteʻenaʻiga malo e le fiafia i le aʻoaʻoina e uiga i talaʻaga faigata. Na taʻua e Pingel (2008, 185-187) le taofiofia o aʻoaʻoga o tala faasolopito i le maeʻa ai o le fasiotiga tagata o Rwanda, o taumafaiga e fausia se tala fou i le itu i fafo o Aferika i Saute, ma le tuueseeseina o aʻoga e maua ai le tasi itu talaaga i Bosnia ma Herzegovina. Na taʻua e Pingel (2008, 187): "O le fiafia muamua i le sailia o mafuaaga o le talaʻaga na ala ai ona vevesi ma feteʻenaʻi i totonu o le sosaiete, e vave lava ona ufitia e le tulafono o le manatuaina o mea na tapunia pe faʻapalepale ai le finauga ua tuanaʻi."

E ui lava i faigata faaupufai e masani ona iai i (post) siosiomaga feteʻenaʻi, taumafaiga e aʻoaʻo talaʻaga faigata na faia i le tele o atunuʻu e faʻalauiloaina multiperspectivity ma faitioga talaʻaga i curricula. O le isi vaega o loʻo aoteleina ai nisi o tulaga taua na aʻoaʻoina ai talaʻaga - e ala i le toe suʻesuʻeina o tusi ma le aʻoaʻoina o tala faʻafinau - e faʻaauauina ai le leleiga.

Toe iloiloina Tusitusiga o Talafaʻasolopito

O nisi sikola na taulaʻi i le toe iloiloga o talaʻaga tusi i le (post) feteʻenaʻiga tulaga o se avanoa mo le sailia faʻalelei. Mo se faʻataʻitaʻiga, e tele setete ma itulagi na faia ni poloketi e tuʻufaʻatasia talaʻaga soʻosoʻo e ala i tusi, e aofia ai le Joint History Project i Sautesasae o Europa, o le Shared History Project taʻitaʻia e le Peace Research Institute i Sasaʻe tutotonu (PRIME) i Isalaelu-Palesitina, ma le Tbilisi Initiative i le itu i Saute o Caucasus (mo auiliiliga o suʻesuʻega, tagai i le Korostelina 2012). Ina ua maeʻa feagai ma le anoanoaʻi o faʻafetauiga luitau faʻapea foi ma faʻaupolokiki faʻafitauli, o nei poloketi uma mulimuli ane gaosia tusitusiga aʻoga e fai ma sui talaʻaga eseʻese tala mai vaega eseese. O le iʻuga o nei poloketi e le o le fausiaina o se tusi, faʻasoa talafaʻasolopito e sui ai tala faʻasolopito; Nai lo lea, na latou tuʻuina isi tala i autafa, faʻalagolago i le "multiperspectivity" e faʻamalosia ai le fealofani ma maua ai avanoa mo faʻauigaina uiga o faʻasinomaga e luʻiina (Korostelina 2012, 211-213). O le mea lea, o poloketi nei e saofagā i le faʻalelei ma le faia o meafaigaluega e aʻoaʻo ai e toe faʻafou ai manatu o tamaiti aʻoga i le vavaega o soʻotaga i taimi uumi ma le fausiaina o ni avanoa mo talanoaga i totonu o komiti e ala i komiti ma vaega galulue o loʻo potopoto mo se taimi puʻupuʻu e fefaʻasoaaʻi ai i soʻotaga talaʻaga.

O le faʻamamafaina o lenei vaega o talanoaga, Metro (2013) faʻataʻitaʻiina faʻatonuga o mataupu faʻaleaʻoaʻoga o talafaʻasolopito o ni fonotaga faʻatasi i totonu o vaega, ma taulaʻi atu i le auala e mafai ai e fegalegaleaiga i totonu o aʻoga aʻoga ona maua se avanoa mo se toʻafilemu laʻititi. Faʻavae i luga o le suʻesuʻega o le atunuʻu o auala na feutanaʻi ai le toatele o tagata Burmese tagata sulufaʻi ma tagata sulufaʻi i Thailand i le toe iloiloina o mataupu o aʻoga, Metro (2013, 146) o loʻo otootoina mai ai ni laʻasaga se ono e faʻatulagaina ai se leleiga, e aofia ai: 1) iloa o le tele o vaʻaiga i talaʻaga o loʻo iai; 2) "laa i totonu o seevae" o isi; 3) faʻafaigataina faʻamatalaina matata e uiga i faʻailoga; 4) faʻaalia le vaeluaina o ituaiga i isi ituaiga tagata; ma le 5) fausiaina o soʻotaga vaʻaiga ma isi ituaiga. ” Ua faamamafa mai e Metro (6, 2013) o lenei faiga e le aliali mai i se laina tuusaʻo ma papupuni tumau - e aofia ai feeseeseaiga i le va o itupa, papupuni gagana, ma popolega e uiga i mafaufauga faitio-e ui o taunuuga lelei na lipotia mai le faʻataʻitaʻiga.

E ui o le gaioiga o le fausiaina o soʻotaga talaʻaga mafai ai avanoa mo le faʻaleleia, o loʻo tumau pea le le lava o faʻamaoniga e faʻaalia ai le umi o aʻafiaga o nei taumafaiga. Ae maise lava, tusa lava pe faʻatonuina tusi aʻoga, e masani ona manatu o le a faʻaaogaina i potu aʻoga, atonu e le o le tulaga lea (tagai Paulson et al. 2020, 441). O isi suʻesuʻega pe faʻafefea ona faʻaaogaina tusi aʻoga soʻoga i potuaʻoga - ma o lona uiga e aʻafia ai uiga ma amioga agaʻi i le toe faʻaleleia i tamaiti aʻoga - e manaʻomia (vaʻai Skårås 2019, 517). I se tasi faʻataʻitaʻiga o ia suʻesuʻega, na suʻesuʻe ai e Rohde (2013, 187) le poloketi tusi a le PRIME, ma iloa ai o i latou na aʻafia i le fausiaina o le tusi, sa faigata ona faʻaliliu upu "talanoaga i taimi o talanoaga" ma isi i talaatu o latou fetaiaʻiga e fesoʻotaʻi ma le fesoʻotaʻiga ma le olaga masani. I se faʻaopopoga, o tamaiti aʻoga Isalaelu ma Palesitina na faʻaaogaina le tusi i autafa o le vasega i le vasega na fefiloi lagona i le faʻaalia o le tala a le isi, e amata mai i le mumusu e matala (Rohde 2013, 187). I le taimi nei, e tumau pea le le malamalama pe o le faʻalelei na maua e ala i le tuʻufaʻatasia o tusi aʻoga poloketi i le tumau, lautele, ma lelei aʻafiaga.

Aʻoaʻoina Faʻamatalaga Tauvaga i Vasega-ma Aʻoaʻoga Totogi Aʻoaʻoga

O le isi auala aoga faʻatulagaina i le aʻoaʻoina o finauga faʻasolopito tala i tamaiti aʻoga i avanoa aʻoaʻoga ina ia faʻalauteleina le faʻaleleia. Salomon (2006, 45) fai mai o le filemu aʻoaʻoga faia se eseesega i le mafai ona foʻia feteʻenaʻiga pe a oʻo i ni suiga i vaega 'tuufaatasiga tala, lea e masani ona taula i malamalamaʻaga o le talaʻaga. Faʻaleaogaina faʻaleaʻoaʻoga fuafuaina e faʻafaigata ma tauva ai le taʻutaʻua tala o le suauʻu feteʻenaʻi na faʻaaogaina i le va ma totonu ma totonu o nofoaga, faʻatasi ai ma iʻuga fefiloi.

O le aʻoaʻoina o faʻamatalaga finau i mataupu faʻaleaʻoaʻoga vavalalata e aumaia tele mai le "fesoʻotaʻiga faʻafesoʻotaʻi," i le fautuaina ai o le fefaʻasoaaʻi o tala e ala i feiloaʻiga i le va o kulupu e mafai ona i ai ni aafiaga lelei ia latou sootaga. Afai o avanoa mo ia fesuiaʻiga e faʻatapulaʻaina e le vavaeʻeseina o aʻoga sisitema, faʻavavaeʻeseina mafai ona maua ai se ala i le faʻaleleiga. Mo se faʻataʻitaʻiga, o se suʻesuʻega e sili atu i le 3,000 tamaiti aʻoga maualuluga ma kolisi i tausaga ua tuanaʻi Yugoslavia na maua ai tamaiti aʻoga na sili atu ona lipotia le talitonuina e mafai ona faia se faaleleiga peʻa o latou o ni tamaiti aʻoga i ituaiga aoga eseese (Meernik et al. 2016, 425). O le isi suʻesuʻega na saunia e Schulz (2008) e aofia ai le matauina o tamaiti Isaraelu ma Palesitina o loʻo lesitalaina i le polokalame lava lea e tasi mo le filemu ma atinae. O le suʻesuʻega na maua ai, o lesona i le finauga o talaʻaga o le fetauiga a Isaraelu-Palesitina, na mafua ai ona maua e tamaiti aʻoga le malamalama loloto i manatu o isi, ae na faʻaosofia ai foʻi lagona le lelei aʻo taumafai tamaiti aʻoga e puipuia tala o a latou ingroup (Schulz 2008, 41-42). Faʻatasi ai ma tapulaʻa o lenei intergroup auala i aʻoaʻoga o faigata fuaina pe faʻafefea suiga o uiga ma fusia faʻamaonia i totonu o le potuaʻoga tumau pe a maeʻa polokalama maeʻa ma o lea afaina ai le faʻaleleia i luga o le lautele lautele tulaga (vaʻai Schulz 2008, 46-47). E pei o ni nai suʻesuʻega i talafaʻasolopito aʻoaʻoga i totonu o kulupu kulupu e mafai ona maua, o lenei ono faʻaalia ai faigata o le aumaia muamua feteʻenaʻi vaega faʻatasi i aʻoaʻoga avanoa ma le manaʻoga mo nisi suʻesuʻega.

O isi aʻoaʻoga faʻatosina na faʻatutuina faapitoa i le intragroup tulaga, lea o le aʻoaʻoina o finauga faʻasolopito tala e ono aʻafia ai lagona o tamaiti aʻoga a latou ingroup faapea foi ma le le taimi nei isi. Mo se faʻataʻitaʻiga, Ben David ma paʻaga (2017) faʻatautaia talanoaga faʻatasi ma tamaiti aʻoga maualalo Iutaia-Isalaelu e ala i se semina iunivesite na faʻatauaina le suʻesuʻeina o faʻamatalaga tuʻufaʻatasi ma faʻamaoniga o Isalaelu ma Palesitina. Na latou mauaina e faapea "o talanoaga i totonu o le vaega na saunia ai se avanoa saogalemu mo le feagai ai ma le aafiaga o le feteʻenaʻiga i luga o tagata auai, o se faasinomaga, i se auala e siitia ai le naunautaiga i le faaleleiga" (Ben David et al. 2017, 275). Meernik ma paʻaga (2016, 427) maua o tamaiti aʻoga i le muamua Yugoslavia (i uma homogenous ma feolofoaʻiga-ituaiga aʻoga) oe na ioeina a latou lava ituaiga vaega i le feteʻenaʻiga ma iloa le lelei aʻafiaga o le International Criminal Tribunal vaʻaia le faʻalelei e pei ona foliga mai , fautuaina le taua o le aʻoaʻo atu e uiga i nei mataupu. Peitaʻi, o aʻoaʻoga o le talafaʻasolopito e faʻailoa mai ai le tausalaina o se mea e le masani ai, e masani ona faʻalauteleina ai le lelei i le va o vaega. Bilewicz ma paʻaga (2017) faʻaalia faʻafefea Holocaust talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga i totonu o Siamani ma Polani tamaiti aʻoga o le aoga maualuga na i ai se aafiaga laitiiti i le faaleleia atili antisemitic uiga. E manaʻomia le tele o suʻesuʻega e malamalama ai pe o afea ma pe faʻapefea ona aʻoaʻoina le faʻafinauina o tala faʻasolopito e taʻitaʻia ai le suia o uiga i tamaiti aʻoga agaʻi i le faʻapalepaleina ma le faʻalelei. E ui lava o tusitusiga i le va fealoaʻi ma le mafaufau, e aofia ai le tele o suʻesuʻega o talanoaga i totonu o aʻoga ma vaega o loʻo faia i fafo atu o aʻoga (mo se faʻataʻitaʻiga, tagaʻi i tusitusiga i le David David et al. 2017) i le faaleleiga.

fautuaga

O lenei tusitusiga na saunia ai se aotelega puʻupuʻu o le tulaga o suʻesuʻega fesoʻotaʻi talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga i le faʻaleleiga i (post) feteʻenaʻiga nofoaga. I le faʻaiʻuga, o nisi nei o faʻasologa fautuaga mai lenei tusitusiga mo faiaʻoga, faiaʻoga, ma sikola i lalo:

  • Aloese mai le aʻoaʻoina o Tala Faʻasolopito e Tasi Itu: Tuʻufaʻatasia multiperspectivity e teuteu ai manatu o itu uma o le feteʻenaʻiga. E mafai ona maua lea i le tusiaina o mataupu faʻavae mai galuega faʻatasi o talafaʻasolopito e tuʻuina atu ai isi auala e matua tele ai tala. Faʻapitoa lava, "Talaʻaga o matata eseese e tatau ona faʻamamafaina ai auala na pagatia ai vaega uma i totonu o se sosaiete, aofia ai talanoaga o le mafuaʻaga ma pe faʻapefea ona faʻaletonuina ma faʻatamaʻia nei vaega, ma faʻaalia ai le faʻamaonia o gaioiga faʻaituʻau ma le saua" (Korostelina 2012, 196-197 ).
  • Faʻalauiloa Manatu Taua i Talafaʻasolopito Aʻoaʻo: I le teori, faʻamalosia le faʻafesili fesili o se aʻoaʻoga faʻapitoa i totonu o le potuaʻoga mafai ona lagolagoina faʻalelei ma democratization (tagai EAD 2021 ma McCully 2010). E pei ona matauina e Korostelina (2016, 306): "O le taua tele o talaaga e unaʻia ai le avea ma sitiseni taua, mafaufauga faitio, ma le agavaʻa e iloa ai le faʻaleagaina o agafesoʻotaʻi, ma taofia ai le toe tulaʻi mai o sauaga." Talafaʻasolopito aʻoaʻoga tatau ona faʻamamafaina le fiailoa ma fesili.
  • Faʻaoga Auala Fou Aʻoaʻoga e Faʻataʻamilomilo ai Faʻailoga Taufaʻailoga: Nisi metotia aofia ai: 1) faʻamamafaina le tigaalofa ma le tagata afaina vaega i luga o le taʻusalaina ma le fesoʻotaʻi ma le tagata faʻatupu vaega; 2) faʻalagolago i tala o amio-faʻataʻitaʻiga ma toa fesoasoani e avea o se faʻaititia le ulufale gofie mo le talanoaina o se finauga talafaasolopito; ma le 3) taulaʻi i talaʻaga i le lotoifale (nai lo tala a le atunuʻu) o loʻo latou avanoa e faʻapitoa ai le talaʻaga (Bilewicz et al. 2017, 183-187). I se faʻaopopoga, o talanoaga i totonu o vaega e mafai ona muamua mai i ni talanoaga i totonu o aʻoaʻoga, e faʻatagaina ai sui o le aʻoaʻoga e suʻesuʻe tala e ono luʻiina ai o latou tulaga i se siʻosiʻomaga e le tau faʻafefe (tagai Ben David et al. 2017).
  • Faʻailoa le Ofisa o Talafaʻasolopito Faiaʻoga ma Tamaiti Aʻoga: A o (post) feteʻenaʻiga setete ono i ai aia faaupufai fiafia i le tufatufaina faapitoa faʻatulafonoina tala, tamaiti aʻoga ma faiaʻoga maua taua saolotoga i le potuaoga e "auai, talepe pe le amanaʻiaina" latou (Paulson et al. 2020, 444). A o eseʻese tala faʻasolopito e aveʻesea mai aloaia faʻatagaina aʻoaʻoga, faiaoga, tamaiti aʻoga, ma kulupu kulupu mafai ona fausiaina le aloaia avanoa ma avanoa mo le faʻaleleia (vaʻaia le faʻataʻitaʻiga o le tasi Mosalemi ma Tamil alalafaga i Sri Lanka e Duncan ma Lope Cardozo 2017).
  • Faʻamalosia le Faʻafesoʻotaʻiga o Fesoʻotaʻiga i le Aʻoga: Aʻoga avanoa e mafai ona faʻaaogaina e faʻatulaga ai tamaiti aʻoga mai feteʻenaʻi pati, mafai ai latou e aʻoaʻo ma ma mai le tasi i le isi. O nei fegalegaleaiga mafai ona fesoasoani faʻaititia vavaega feeseeseaiga ma faʻalauteleina malamalamaaga, e ui o le siosiomaga e tatau ona fausiaina o se saogalemu se nofoaga o feeseeseaiga i maaleale tala faʻasolopito mataupu e mafai ona faʻalelei lelei (tagai Schulz 2008). Faʻavasegaina aʻoga mafai foi ona fesoasoani faʻatoʻilaloina faʻafitauli i le faʻaleleia (vaʻai Meernik et al. 2016 ma Pingel 2008 i aafiaga i le muamua Yugoslavia).
  • Tuʻufaʻatasia Talaʻaga Aʻoaʻoga i Faʻagasologa o Tulaga Tau Faʻamasinoga: E ui o le manatuaina o loʻo avea ma itu taua o le fesuiaiga o faʻamasinoga, o le mafaufau e tatau ona sili atu i fale mataaga, faʻamanatuga, ma faʻamanatuga e aofia ai aʻoga o se nofoaga o manatua (tagai Cole 2007 ma Paulson et al. 2020). E le gata i lea, o Pingel (2008, 194) o loʻo maitauina le laʻititi o taumafaiga sa alu atu i le tuʻufaʻatasia o "upu moni" na maua e komisi moni poʻo faʻataʻitaʻiga i talaʻaga aʻoaʻoga, faʻailoa mai le valea natura o nei suiga o faiga faʻamasinoga ma pe faʻafefea ona faʻanofo filemu e ala i le le lava faʻamaopoopo.
  • Suesue i Aʻafiaga o Talaʻaga Aʻoaʻoga i (Post) Feteʻenaʻiga Sosaiete: E pei ona faʻailoa mai e lenei tusitusiga, e tele suʻesuʻega e manaʻomia e malamalama ai i le aʻafiaga o aʻoaʻoga o talafaʻasolopito i (post) feteʻenaʻiga sosaiete. O suʻesuʻega i le lumanaʻi e tatau ona saili e iloilo pe faʻafefea ona fesoasoani le aʻoaʻoga o le talafaʻasolopito i ni iʻuga maʻoti, pei o le ono tulaʻi mai o feteʻenaʻiga poʻo le faʻamautinoaina o le leleiga (tagai Paulson 2015, 37). O suʻesuʻega faʻaopoopo e mafai ona suʻesuʻeina pe o faʻatino metotia faʻatinoina iinei (e aofia ai faʻapitoa aʻoaʻoga) e iai aʻafiaga tumau ile toe faʻaleleia ile tulaga o tagata, atunuʻu male faʻavaomalo.

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